Melody K. Waring


Ph.D. Student


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mwaring​@wisc​.edu

School of Social Work


University of Wisconsin-Madison


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Madison, WI 53706


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A Blinded, Cluster-Randomized, Placebo-Controlled School FeedingTrial in Burundi Using Rice Fortified With Iron, Zinc, Thiamine, and Folic Acid


Journal article


M. E. Parker, E. Mosites, K. Reider, N. Ndayishimiye, M. Waring, G. Nyandimbane, D. Masumbuko, L. Ndikuriyo, D. Matthias
Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 36(4), 2015 Oct 30, pp. 481-492

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Abstract:
Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is a major public health problem among school-aged children in
sub-Saharan Africa.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of micronutrient-fortified rice to increase hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduce the prevalence of anemia among schoolchildren.

Methods: Nine hundred four schoolchildren participated in this cluster-randomized trial during a 7-month intervention period. The study was conducted in 12 primary schools in rural Burundi. Hemoglobin, socioeconomic status, febrile illness, and dietary diversity were measured at baseline and follow-up. The changes in Hb concentration and anemia status were analyzed using linear and logistic mixed models, respectively. The micronutrient formulation contained an iron-to-zinc molar ratio of approximately 2.2.

Results: There was no significant difference in Hb concentration between the intervention and control groups (b ¼ .09 g/dL; 95% confidence interval: 0.21 to 0.38) following the 7-month intervention. Nearly half the children reported having a fever within 2 weeks prior to baseline or follow-up. Children with febrile illness preceding follow-up were less than half as likely to show improvement in anemia status (odds ratio ¼ 0.47, P < .001), with an average 0.56 g/dL smaller improvement in Hb at follow-up (P < .001).

Conclusion: The high prevalence of fever and low iron-to-zinc molar ratio of the Ultra Rice formulation may have contributed to the lack of improvement in Hb. Alternatively, the detected anemia may not have been due to nutrient deficiencies. Anemia interventions in Burundi should implement multiple strategies to eliminate both iron deficiency and infectious causes of anemia.

Cite

APA
Parker, M. E., Mosites, E., Reider, K., Ndayishimiye, N., Waring, M., Nyandimbane, G., … Matthias, D. (2015). A Blinded, Cluster-Randomized, Placebo-Controlled School FeedingTrial in Burundi Using Rice Fortified With Iron, Zinc, Thiamine, and Folic Acid. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 36(4), 481–492.

Chicago/Turabian
Parker, M. E., E. Mosites, K. Reider, N. Ndayishimiye, M. Waring, G. Nyandimbane, D. Masumbuko, L. Ndikuriyo, and D. Matthias. “A Blinded, Cluster-Randomized, Placebo-Controlled School FeedingTrial in Burundi Using Rice Fortified With Iron, Zinc, Thiamine, and Folic Acid.” Food and Nutrition Bulletin 36, no. 4 (October 30, 2015): 481–492.

MLA
Parker, M. E., et al. “A Blinded, Cluster-Randomized, Placebo-Controlled School FeedingTrial in Burundi Using Rice Fortified With Iron, Zinc, Thiamine, and Folic Acid.” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 4, Oct. 2015, pp. 481–92.